Saturday, March 14, 2020

Compare and contrast three current paradigms Essays

Compare and contrast three current paradigms Essays Compare and contrast three current paradigms Essay Compare and contrast three current paradigms Essay Compare and contrast three current paradigms in abnormal psychology associating to the aetiology and care of eating upsets. This essay will get down by briefly specifying the cardinal constructs of this inquiry and will so give a concise account of the chief feeding upsets in order to supply relevant background information, before researching the three paradigms identified further on. Finally the essay will summarize some differences and applications to eating upsets, of these paradigms. Abnormal psychology is the scientific survey of unnatural behavior ( Stirling and Hellewell 1999 ) which draws upon different subjects such as psychological science, psychopathology, neurology and general medical specialty. The term paradigm’ has been accorded many definitions ; nevertheless within the context of this treatment could be thought of as a construct used by many subjects to stand for a class of theories for the intent of account ( Stansfield 2001 ) . Aetiology is concerned with the causing of disease. The inquiry refers to both aetiology and to care and the differentiation is of import in the sense that an consciousness of aetiology can inform bar of conditions, or at least aid to recognize and turn to early hazard factors, whereas knowledge about care factors is necessary in order to be able to develop effectual intervention intercessions ( Stice 2002 ) . There are three chief eating upsets, viz. anorexia nervosa, binge-eating syndrome nervosa and orgy eating upset ( Keel and Herzog 2004 ) . Anorexia nervosa is associated with a organic structure weight which is 15 % or more below what is expected for the individual’s tallness and weight, due to terrible limitation of food- consumption, frequently combined with inordinate exercising. Diagnosis besides takes into history an intense fright of being fat together with a deformed body- image. The chief characteristic of binge-eating syndrome nervosa is a combination of orgy feeding and self- induced emesis and the usage of laxatives or water pills. There is besides a preoccupation with organic structure weight ( Roth et al 2005 ) . Binge eating upset is characterised by periodic orgy feeding ( twice a hebdomad or more ) non usually followed by purging or the usage of laxatives ( Brown 2005 ) . The literature refers besides to other, less well- known eating upsets such as Eating Diso rder Not Otherwise Specified ( EDNOS ) ( Key and Lacey 2002 ) which is characterised by a combination of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa and binge-eating syndrome nervosa together with high degrees of perfectionism, relationship troubles and a reluctance to seek aid. Current paradigms in abnormal psychology include the familial paradigm, the psychoanalytic paradigm, the cognitive behavioral paradigm and the neuroscience paradigm every bit good as other factors that are more eclectic such as emotion, sociocultural factors, emphasis and clinical jobs that have multiple positions ( Kring et al 2006 ) The three paradigms to be compared and contrasted here are the familial paradigm, the cognitive behavioral paradigm and the neuroscience paradigm. Familial factors were non originally thought to lend to eating upsets ( Lilenfeld and Kay 1998 ) ; nevertheless twin surveies have indicated that there can be familial factors ( Ingram and Price 2002 ) and have added to the turning organic structure of grounds which suggests that familial factors are extremely important in the development of eating upsets ( Lask and Bryant- Waugh 2000 ) . It has been suggested that familial factors contribute to a wide spectrum of eating upsets instead than to one specifically defined upset ( Smolak et al 1996 ) . If this is the instance so it may be more helpful to look for indicants of a general sensitivity to eating upsets which may emerge earlier in life, than the specific status. At present our apprehension of the relationship between familial factors and eating upsets has limited application ; i.e. to the consideration of household history in order to place at- hazard persons. However in the hereafter it is anticipated that high- hazard persons will be identifiable by their genotypes ( familial make- up ) . Finally, it should be possible to utilize cistron therapy to cut down or even extinguish the familial hazard of developing an feeding upset. ( Johnson and Bulick accessed 2006 ) . Within the cognitive behavioral paradigm, the account for eating upsets is concerned with psychological factors ; anorexia nervosa originates from feelings of being fat and unattractive ( Rosen et al 1995 ) and is maintained by cognitive prejudice ( divergence from rational thought ( Gelfand 2004 ) . This paradigm is based on the premise that cognitive factors are straight linked to eating ( and other ) upsets and hence, it should be possible to handle the symptoms of eating upsets by straight aiming these cognitive factors ( Russell and Jarvis 2003a ) utilizing cognitive behavioral therapy ( CBT ) . CBT focuses on beliefs and behaviors, the function these play in the development of psychological troubles and the care of these troubles over a period of clip ( Roth Ledley et Al 2005 ) . Presently there is more grounds to back up the effectivity of CBT with binge-eating syndrome nervosa than with anorexia nervosa ( Simos 2002 ) . The account for eating upsets within the neuroscience paradigm includes a nexus between the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine and psychological symptoms such as appetency ; anorexia being linked to altered ( i.e. low ) degrees of 5-hydroxytryptamine ( Kaye et al 2005 ) . Serotonin plays an of import portion in the ordinance of appetency every bit good as other facets such as slumber and temper. A low degree of 5-hydroxytryptamine besides causes hyperactivity and crossness which may lend to the care of the eating upset ( Yates 1991 ) . Drugs such as Prozac might be used to handle eating upsets as they have the consequence of raising degrees of 5-hydroxytryptamine ( Russell and Jarvis 2003b ) . However, although it has been found that handling binge-eating syndrome nervosa with Prozac has shown a high degree of effectivity ; cognitive behavioral therapy shows a greater grade of success with fewer side effects and longer-lasting consequences ( Costin 2006 ) In decision, the familial paradigm offers some account for the aetiology of eating upsets and has relevancy in relation to placing familial factors. It is merely in the hereafter that advances in cistron therapy will enable its application. The neuroscience paradigm is concerned with accounts about chemical alterations which can trip eating upsets and consequently intervention involves chemical intercession. Overall CBT appears to be one of the most effectual attacks used in the intervention of eating upsets but might be more helpful when used with some upsets than others and its success is dependent on the harmony of the patient. It is possible that no one current paradigm in abnormal psychology can definitively explicate the aetiology and care of eating upsets. It has been suggested for illustration that psychosocial factors are extremely influential in determining eating upsets, but could besides trip implicit in familial mechanisms ( Vrachnas et al 2005 ) . Palmer ( 2004 ) suppor ts this position by proposing that anorexia nervosa and binge-eating syndrome nervosa portion a similar familial susceptibleness, but the signifier the status takes may be determined by other factors. Furthermore, Klump et al observed that personality as a familial hazard factor is likely to interact with environmental emphasiss in order to take to eating upsets. This suggests that a combination of attacks ( a biopsychosocial theoretical account ( Hoek et al 1998 ) ) is likely to be the best manner frontward and there is some grounds for illustration, to propose that CBT is most effectual when used in concurrence with other schemes to handle eating upsets ( Grilo 2006 ) . Overall, the pupil would hold with Halmi ( 1992 ) ; that imputing accounts for eating upsets to a individual paradigm, is a reductionist position. Mentions Brown J. Nutrition now. Thomas Wadsworth. 2005. p.2 Costin C. Medication for Treating Eating Disorders: The Psychiatrist s Role and Medication. Eating Disorders Community. 2006. hypertext transfer protocol: // Accessed: 25ThursdayNovember 2006 Gelfand M The Handbook of Negotiation and Culture. Stanford University Press. 2004. p. 8. Grilo C. Cognitive behavioral therapy does non better result in corpulent adult females with orgy eating upset having a comprehensive really low Calorie diet programme.Evidence-Based Mental Health. 9 ( 1 ) 2006. p.12. Halmi K Psychobiology and Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa. American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.1992. p.116. Hoek H J Treasure J and Katzman M. Neurobiology in the Treatment of Eating Disorders. John Wiley and Sons. 1998. p.3. Ingram R and Price J ( Eds. ) Vulnerability to Psychopathology: hazard across the lifetime. Guilford imperativeness. 2002. p. 392. Johnson C and Bulick C. Brave New World: The Role of Genetics in the Prevention and Treatment of Eating Disorders. A collaborative survey of the genetic sciences of anorexia nervosa and Bulimia nervosa. hypertext transfer protocol: // Accessed 23rd November 2006. Lask B and Bryant- Waugh R. Anorexia Nervosa and Related Eating Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence.Psychology Press.2000. p.64 Kaye W, Frank G, Bailer U, Henry S, Meltzer C, Price J, Mathis C, Wagner A. Serotonin changes in anorexia and binge-eating syndrome nervosa: new penetrations from imaging surveies.Physiol Behav, 85 ( 1 ) 2005 pp. 73-81. Keel P and Herzog D Long- term result, class of unwellness and mortality in Anorexia nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder. In: Brewerton T. Clinical Handbook of Eating Disorders: An incorporate attack. Marcel Dekker. 2004. pp.97, 98 Identify A and Lacey H. Progress in eating upset research. Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 15 ( 2 ) 2002. pp.143-148 Klump K, McGue M and Iacono W Genetic Relationships Between Personality and Eating Attitudes and Behaviours. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 111 ( 2 ) 2002. pp. 380-389 Kring A, Davison G, Neale J and Johnson S. Abnormal Psychology. 10ThursdayEdition. 2006 John Wiley and Sons. Lilenfeld L and Kay W. Genetic Studies of Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa. In: Neurobiology in the Treatment of Eating Disorders Wijbrand Hoek H Treasure J Katzman M ( Eds. ) John Wiley and Sons. 1998. p. 169 Palmer R. Bulimia nervosa: 25 old ages on.The British Journal of Psychiatry.P. 185 2004pp. 447-448 Rosen JC, Reiter J, Orosan P. Assessment of organic structure image in eating upsets with the organic structure dysmorphic upset scrutiny.Behav Res Ther, 1, 1995 pp. 77-84 Roth, A, Fonagy P, Woods R, Parry G and Target M. What Works For Whom? : a critical reappraisal of psychotherapeutics research.Guilford Press. 2005. pp. 236-7 Roth Ledley D, Marx B and Heimberg R. Making Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy Work: Clinical Process for New Practitioners. Guilford imperativeness. 2005. p. 2. Russell J and Jarvis M. Angles on Applied Psychology. Nelson Thornes. 2003. pp.98,100 Simos G. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy: A Guide for the Practicing Clinician. Psychology Press. 2002. p. 173. Smolak L, Striegel-Moore R and Levine M ( Eds. ) The developmental abnormal psychology of eating upsets: deductions for research, bar and intervention. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 1996. p.73 Stansfield M. Introduction to Paradigms. Trafford. 2001 pp.3-5 Stice E. Risk and Maintenance Factors for Eating Pathology: A Meta-Analytic Review. Psychological Bulletin. 128 ( 5 ) 2002. pp. 825-848 Stirling J and Hellewell J Psychopathology. Routledge 1999. p.1 Vrachnas J, Boyd K, Bagaric M and Dimopoulos P Migration And Refugee Law: Principles And Practices In Australia. Cambridge University Press. 2005. p. eleven. Yates A. Compulsive Exercise and the Eating Disorders: Toward an Integrated Theory of Activity. Psychology Press. 1991. p.74. Entire word count: 1756

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Finance & Growth Strategies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Finance & Growth Strategies - Essay Example The risk can be greatly reduced by holding diverse security portfolios of various industrial sectors. Good performance of other companies in the portfolio would negate the effect of bad performance of some of the companies. Since the risk is diversifiable investors would not be able to demand a premium on investment due to the unsystematic risk. Systematic, non-diversifiable, market or relevant risk is inherent in the market due to macro and economic factors such as interest and exchange rates, recession, inflation, consumer demand, oil prices, taxation and bear market (market where prices decline). This risk cannot be diversified as the above mentioned factors influence the stock market and subsequently the market index. Investors who want high returns on investments should select assets with higher systematic risks while investors who want to eliminate risks should invest in risk-free assets such as government bonds. However, investors generally prefer higher rate of returns on investments in Public listed companies (PLC) rather than risk free assets to compensate for undertaking systematic risks. Systematic risks are considered relevant as they can’t be successfully diversified. According to Anon, â€Å"Only the systematic risk is relevant for assessing the rate of return required by shareholders – efficient markets do not offer a reward for bearing specific risk† (2007a, p. 6.20). Though diversification is not a guarantee against loss it is a prudent strategy to achieve long term financial objectives. 1. b. According to the CAPM, Beta or financial elasticity and correlated relative volatility is a measure of systematic risk. Systematic risk earns a risk premium and Beta is a calculated coefficient that indicates the amount of risk contributed by a security to the market portfolio. Beta, is determined by taking into consideration both dividend and capital appreciation. Beta is â€Å"†¦a measure of the responsiveness of the expected return on

Monday, February 10, 2020

Does the research evidence support using caesarean section for Essay

Does the research evidence support using caesarean section for reducing mother to baby transmission of hepatitis C during labour and birth - Essay Example y Armstrong and his colleagues, the incidence of Hepatitis C infection in the US escalated from zero to 44 cases for every 100,000 individuals before 1965. The prevalence of the disease reached its peak in the 1980’s when the incidence of HPV infection became 100-200 per 100,000 individuals (Armstrong et al., 2000, p. 779). Although HCV infection in most patients is asymptomatic, several cases demonstrate certain symptoms including jaundice, fatigue, myalgia, low-grade fever, right upper quadrant pain, nausea, or vomiting (Moore et al., 2001, p. 658; Maheshwari et al., 2008, p. 325; Webster et al., 2009, p. 110). If not given appropriate medical attention, hepatitis C often leads to liver fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, hepato-cellular carcinoma, and liver damage (Vogt et al., 1999, p. 868; Moore et al., 2001; 657; Geller and Herman, 2006, p. 88) The most efficient mode by which the virus is acquired occurs via repeated and direct percutaneous exposure to infected blood and organs from unscreened donors, exposure of blood through the use of contaminated medical instruments, injection drug use, and haemodialysis procedures (Lavanchy, 1999, p. 147; Bartolotti et al., 2007, p. 784). However, with the advent of better needle exchange programs, blood donor screening, hygiene care, and education among injecting drug users, a significant decline in the prevalence of Hepatitis C has been reported since the 1990s (Armstorng et al., 2000, p. 779; Geller and Herman, 2006, p 86). Another route by which HCV infection can be acquired is through vertical transmission ( e.i. passive acquisition of the virus by children from infected mothers) ( Kudo et al., 1997, p. 225). The actual mechanism of mother-to-child HCV transmission is not yet known, but exposure to infected mucous, fluids and blood from the mother significantly increases the ris k of transmission (Indolfi and Resti, 2009, p. 837) According to Plunkett et al. (2004, p. 998), the highest prevalence of Hepatitis C occurs

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Genocide is the deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those of a particular ethnic group or nation. (Genocide) Essay Example for Free

Genocide is the deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those of a particular ethnic group or nation. (Genocide) Essay Introduction In 1994 Rwanda experienced the worst genocide in modern times. The Rwandan Genocide was a genocidal mass slaughter of the Tutsis by the Hutus that took place in 1994 in the East African state of Rwanda. It is considered the most organized genocide of the 20th century. Over the course of approximately 100 days (from the assassination of Juvenal Habyarimana and Cyprien Ntaryamira on April 6 through mid-July) over 500,000 people were killed, according to a Human Rights Watch estimate. Estimates of the death toll have ranged from 500,000–1,000,000, or as much as 20% of the countrys total population. It was the culmination of longstanding ethnic competition and tensions between the minority Tutsi, who had controlled power for centuries, and the majority Hutu peoples, who had come to power in the rebellion of 1959–62. (Rwandan Genocide) History between the Hutu and Tutsi people In 1990, the Rwandan Patriotic Front, a rebel group composed mostly of Tutsi refugees, invaded northern Rwanda from Uganda in an attempt to defeat the Hutu-led government. They began the Rwandan Civil War, fought between the Hutu regime, with support from Francophone Africa and France, and the Rwandan Patriotic Front, with support from Uganda. This exacerbated ethnic tensions in the country. In response, many Hutu gravitated toward the Hutu Power(Rwandan Genocide), an ideology propounded by Hutu extremist, with the prompting of state-controlled and independent Rwandan media. As an ideology, Hutu Power asserted that the Tutsi intended to enslave the Hutu and must be resisted at all costs. Continuing ethnic strife resulted in the rebels displacing large numbers of Hutu in the north, plus periodic localized Hutu killings of Tutsi in the south. International pressure on the Hutu-led government of Juvenal Habyarimana resulted in a cease-fire in 1993. He planned to implement the Arusha Peace Agreement.(Rwandan Genocide) The assassination of Habyarimana in April 1994 set off a violent reaction, during which Hutu groups conducted mass killings of Tutsis (and also pro-peace Hutus, who were portrayed as traitors and collaborators). This genocide had been planned by members of the Hutu power group known as the  Akazu ( Hutu extremist ) , many of whom occupied positions at top levels of the national government; the genocide was supported and coordinated by the national government as well as by local military and civil officials and mass media. Alongside the military, primary responsibility for the killings themselves rests with two Hutu militias that had been organized for this purpose by political parties: the Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi, although once the genocide was underway a great number of Hutu civilians took part in the murders. It was the end of the peace agreement. The Tutsi Rwandan Patriotic Front restarted their offensive, defeating the army and seizing control of the country.(Rwandan Genocide) Overview of the Rwandan Genocide with International Response After the Hutu presidents plane is gunned down on April 6. Hutu gunmen systematically start tracking down and killing moderate Hutu politicians and Tutsi leaders. The deputy to the U.S. ambassador in Rwanda tells Washington that the killings involve not just political murders, but genocide. The U.S. decides to evacuate all Americans. Canadian General Romeo Dallaire, head of the U.N. peacekeeping force in Rwanda, is told by headquarters not to intervene and to avoid armed conflict. In the next few days, evidence mounts of massacres targeting ordinary Tutsis. Front page stories newspaper stories cite reports of tens of thousands dead and a pile of corpses six feet high outside a main hospital. Gen. Dallaire requests a doubling of his force to 5,000. Nearly 3,300 Americans, French, Italians and Belgians are evacuated by troops sent in from their countries. On April 15th Belgium withdraws its troops from the U.N. force after ten Belgian soldiers are slain. Embarrassed to be withdrawing alone, Belgium asks the U.S. to support a full pullout. Secretary of State Christopher agrees and tells Madeleine Albright, Americas U.N. ambassador, to demand complete withdrawal. She is opposed, as are some African nations. She pushes for a compromise: a dramatic cutback that would leave a token force in place. April 16th, The New York Times reports the shooting and hacking to death of some 1000 men, women and children in a church where they sought refuge. Day 12, By this date, Human Rights Watch estimates the number of dead at 100,000 and calls on the U.N. Security Council to use the word genocide.Belgian troops leave Rwanda; Gen. Dallaire is down to a force of 2,100. He will soon lose communication lines to outlying areas and will have only a satellite link to the outside world. By April 25th,Gen. Dallaire is down to 450 ill-equipped troops from developing countries. He works to protect some 25,000 Rwandans who are at places guarded by U.N. forces. He still hopes the Security Council will change its mind and send him forces while there is still time.(Ghosts of Rwanda) On May 1st a Defense Department discussion paper, prepared for a meeting of officials having day-to-day responsibility on the crisis, is filled with cautions about the U.S. becoming committed to taking action. The word genocide is a concern. Be careful. Legal at State was worried about this yesterday Genocide finding could commit [the U.S.] to actually do something.(Ghosts of Rwanda) Bureaucratic paralysis continues. Few African countries offer troops for the mission and the Pentagon and U.N. argue for two weeks over who will pay the costs of the APCs and who will pay for transporting them. It takes a full month before the U.S. begins sending the APCs to Africa. They dont arrive until July. Seven weeks into the genocide, President Clinton gives speech that restates his policy that humanitarian action anywhere in the world would have to be in Americas national interest:The end of the superpower standoff lifted the lid from a cauldron of long-simmering hatreds. Now the entire global terrain is bloody with such conflicts, from Rwanda to Georgia. Whether we get involved in any of the worlds ethnic conflicts in the end must depend on the cumulative weight of the American interests at stake.(Ghosts of Rwanda) Eleven weeks into the genocide, with still no sign of a U.N. deployment to Rwanda, the U.N. Security Council authorizes France to unilaterally intervene in southwest Rwanda. French forces create a safe area in territory controlled by the Rwanda Hutu government. But killings of Tutsis continue in the safe area.(Ghosts of Rwanda) By July 17th, Tutsi RPF forces have captured Kigali. The Hutu government flees to Zaire, followed by a tide of refugees. The French end their mission in Rwanda and are replaced by Ethiopian U.N. troops. The RPF sets up an interim government in Kigali. Although disease and more killings claim additional lives in the refugee camps, the genocide is over.(Ghosts of Rwanda) Day 100 An estimated 800,000 Rwandans have been killed. The Aftermath In anticipation of a Tutsi retaliation, approximately 2 million Hutus, participants in the genocide, and the bystanders, fled from Rwanda to Zaire (now called Congo), Burundi, Tanzania and Uganda. Thousands of them died in disease epidemics common to the squalor of refugee camps, such as cholera and dysentery. The United States staged the Operation Support Hope airlift from July to September 1994 to stabilize the situation in the camps.(Rwandan Genocide) The presence of 2 million refugees in eastern Zaire helped destabilize the already weak country, whose corrupt president, Mobutu Sese Seko, allowed Hutu extremists among the refugee population to operate with impunity. In October 1996, Mobutus continued support of the Hutu militants led to an uprising by the ethnic Tutsi Banyamulenge people in eastern Zaire (supported politically and militarily by Rwanda), which marked the beginning of the First Congo War, and led to a return of more than 600,000 Hutu refugees to Rwanda during the last two weeks of November. This massive repatriation was followed at the end of December by the return of 500,000 more from Tanzania after they were ejected by the Tanzanian government. Various successor organizations to the Hutu militants operated in eastern DR Congo until May 22, 2009.(Rwandan Genocide) Mobutu was overthrown in May 1997, and Zaires new leader, Laurent Kabila, renamed the country the Democratic Republic of Congo. Kabilas relationship with his Rwandan allies quickly turned sour, and in August 1998 Tutsi rebel forces, supported by Rwanda and Uganda, launched another rebellion. This led to the Second Congo War, killing 5 million people from 1998 to 2004. Rwanda today has two public holidays commemorating the incident, with Genocide Memorial Day on April 7 marking the start, and Liberation Day on July 4 marking the end. The week following April 7 is designated an official week of mourning. One global impact of the Rwandan Genocide is that it served as impetus to the creation of the International Criminal Court, so that ad hoc tribunals would not need to be created for future incidents of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes.(Rwandan Genocide) Works Cited 1.) Rwandan Genocide. Wikipedia. N.p., 20 Apr 2013. Web. 4 Sep 2013. . 2.) Genocide. New Oxford American Dictionary. 2008. 3.) Ghosts of Rwanda. Frontine. PBS, Chapel Hill, 04 Apr 2004. Web. 10 Sep 2013. . .

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

British Serial Killer Essay -- Psychology, Allitt

She is best known as the famous notorious British serial killer. Her crimes horrified and sickened many British families. I first heard about Beverly Allitt when I was watching TruTV. The show had a feature on Allitt and her crimes, this instantaneously caught my attention. The fact that a nurse would intentionally harm children seemed immensely ironic and riveting to me. In my eyes, a nurse was someone who cared and showed concern for a patient. Not someone who intentionally caused anguish and trauma upon innocent children. Coming into this topic, I didn’t know much about the scandalous nurse. I scarcely knew about her history and background. I had heard that Allitt was mentally sick and had suffered some obstacles during her childhood. I also knew that her main way of killing was through over doses of insulin, and that she worked at a ward for infants. The speculations that Allitt suffered from an odd mental illness always intrigued me. I’ve always had many questions about Allitt and her murders. Like, why the children were killed and why they were so young? Children would’ve been easy targets for Allitt. Since most children are smaller than most adults, it would be easier for an adult to over power a child. Also, young children are innocent and might not realize what is happening in there surroundings. This leads me to my next question, how many children were killed and how were they killed? From my small knowledge of Allits history, I thought that she had killed five children. I also knew, that her main way of killing was through large amounts of potassium or insulin. Allit’s murder weapons were easily accessible to her. I’ve always wondered if Allitt really had a mental disorder, or if she was faking it for sympathy. I t... ...lthy appendix; she then plucked at her surgical scar, causing it not to heal correctly. Allitt had been in the hospital for numerous reasons. She complained of â€Å"gall bladder pain, headaches, urinary infections, uncontrolled vomiting, blurred vision, minor injuries, appendicitis, back trouble, and ulcers†(Ramsland 2). When she was hospitalized in 1991, Allitt puzzled nurses when she â€Å"tampered with the thermometer to produce [perplexing] readings, and [also] punctured her right breast to inject herself with water† (Ramsland 2). While working at the ward, Allitt was known for doing weird things. She was suspected of â€Å"smearing feces on the walls and putting it into the refrigerator for others to find† When Beverly was convicted of her murders; she cut herself with paperclips, and burned herself with hot water. She was later placed in a mental ward for her own safety.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Nietzsche and Christianity

When the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche referred to himself and the Anti-Christ, he was doing more than simply using a metaphor. A slight look at his work reveals that practically his entire philosophical system was oriented against Christianity. Most of his books, but primarily The Twilight of the Idols, The Anti-Christ, The Genealogy of Morals, contain the fiercest attack that any philosopher has ever conducted against Christianity. Nietzsche attacks both Christianity as a religious system, as well as the Christian idea of God. The Christian conception of God –God as God of the Sick, God as spider, God as spirit – is one of the most corrupt conceptions of God arrived at on earth: perhaps it even represents the low-water mark in the descending development of God type. (Nietzsche, 2003, p. 140). And so he goes†¦ That quote is only a minor example of the insults Nietzsche proffers against Christian values. He does not seem to repair in the fact that Christianity has disciplined the human spirit for thousands of years; that civilization, as we know it today, owes a lot to the Judeo-Christian values and believes. But, this is precisely the problem. Nietzsche does not believe that the current status of humanity, the values that sustain it, are commendable values. Since he states over and over that man is something that must be turned into something else, this is, the overman, he also believes that, as a consequence, Christianity has done anything productive for humanity, especially when it comes to encouraging man to exercise his will to power. Nietzsche expresses his preference for Buddhism, which he calls â€Å"the only really positivistic religion history has to show us† (2003 p. 141). However, he fails to explain in what manner would Buddhism attain what Christianity has. There is no doubt that the influence of Christianity could be evidently perceived in every realm of mother society. Political and social institutions, democracy, and in general, the concept of egalitarism, in one way or the other, are a consequence of Christian values. It is one thing to be critical of the defective concepts or practice of a given system, be it political or religious, but it is a very different thing to try to crush that entire system with a rhetorical hammer, as Nietzsche attempts to do. In his desperate discourse against Christianity, his criticism at times becomes irrational. Nietzsche’s preference for Buddhism could be explained by his personality. He highly valued individualism, which is very emphasized by the practice of Buddhism. Nietzsche considered that both Christianity and Islam are religions of the sheep and that by their very nature deny individualism or prevent the individual from reaching his inner potential. Nietzsche’s logic states that these religions turn man into a little more than an ape, who mostly imitates but is unable to act in obedience to his own will. Let’s remind ourselves that insulting, using degrading epithets against the adversary, does not prove anything, except the fact that the one who proffers the insults does so precisely due to a lack of valid arguments. And this is exactly what Nietzsche does when the few valid points he has made against Christianity have exhausted. Let’s pay attention to this. Christianity also stands in opposition to all intellectual well-costitutedness – it   can use only the morbid mind as the Christian mind, it takes the side of everything idiotic, it proclaims a curse against the spirit, against the superbia of the healthy spirit. Because sickness belongs to the essence of Christianity, the typical Christian condition, faith, has to be a form of sickness†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (2003, p.181) The use of words such as morbid, idiotic, sickness, all this insulting rhetoric, in reference to Christianity, is in the place where arguments were supposed to be.   This name-calling rhetoric must not be taken as the truth. It would be helpful to remember that while Christianity provides man with a sense of certainty, with a general explanation of the origin and current state of things, Nietzsche’s ideas, especially his ideas of the overman with energy and freedom to do as he pleases, provide no satisfying explanation, but on the contrary, a lot of questions. What Nietzsche proposes could only lead to anarchy. Even for a person who does not believe in the divine origin of Christianity, it is obvious that its values have a positive impact in society. Nietzsche directs a substantial degree of his criticism to the main Christian believes. Concepts such as Guilt, Punishment, Bad Conscience, to which he dedicates an entire section of On the Genealogy of Morals (2006), are treated as if they were not only errors, but a conspiracy against what Nietzsche calls the natural human spirit, which according to him has been contaminated by Christianity. However, it is more than evident that it has been precisely the existence of that type of concepts and ideas what has disciplined man. It would not be exaggerated to state that ninety percent of the degree of civility with which humanity conducts itself is owed to Christianity. The German philosopher himself recognizes that if humanity were to distance itself from the idea of God, in general, and from the believe in Christian values in particular, it would lead to nihilism; this is a state of emptiness that will lead many to self-destruction. In this regard, we arrive now to a very troubling question. Let’s assume that, as Nietzsche conjectures, the entire system of believe upon which Christianity founds itself is a total lie; that there is no God at the end of its road, and that every element that composes it is no more than a man-made fiction. Given the fact that those values have been a great positive contribution to humanity, fro what reason are we supposed to abandon all that and embrace Nietzsche message of the death of God and Christianity? Doesn’t Nietzsche himself recognize that his ideas conduct to nihilism and Christianity to a state of certainty? Let’s go as far as assuming that Nietzsche’s conceptions in reference to the inexistence of God are true. Is it really better to hold on to this truth that leads to the self-destruction than to a fiction that leads to self-preservation? This is a very difficult question. We have no idea of where would these super-human values that Nietzsche proposes take us. This is the poetic form of Nietzsche’s explanation: So I sank once Out of my madness of truth, Out of my longing of days, Weary of day, sick from light, -Sank downwards, eveningwards, shadowwards: With on truth Scorched and thirsty: -Do you still remember, do you remember, hot heart, How you then thirsted?- That I am banished From all truth, Only fool, Only poet! Nietzsche’s obsession with truth, as the poem reveals, not only deviates him from truth, but also prevents him from having in mind that the truth is not necessarily a good thing at all times. This, of course, does not sound good. However, in addition to appreciating truth for what it is in itself, as reasoning beings that we are, it is extremely important that we take into consideration tat the practicality of the truth is equally important to truth.   Christian concepts such as prayer, grace, blessing, and many other concepts that according to the German philosopher do not have a clear connection with reality, provide men with a sense of inner spiritual unity, with peace of mind and heart that Nietzsche obviously sees as undesirable, but that, objectively speaking, seem to be extremely beneficial. But in addition to the passion with which Nietzsche criticizes Christianity, he also spends sometime discussing the founder of Christianity himself: Christ. In reference to Christ, however, it most be pointed out that Nietzsche enters into an obvious contradiction. On the one hand, he uses degrading epithets against Jesus Christ, such as idiot, but on the other hand, he claims that Jesus’ way of life has been distorted by his followers, and accuses the Apostle Paul of founding a religion that is contrary to that taught by Jesus. Nietzsche concludes that Jesus contribution was to teach others how is it that each individual must conduct himself as Jesus did during the incidents that led to his death in sacrifice. Jesus’ inaction, the fact that he did not defend himself during the events that surrounded his execution, is an example of how people should live their lives. At times, it seems as if Nietzsche refers to Jesus with certain tenderness. The case could be made, therefore, that Nietzsche tries to save the historical image of Christ while, at the same time, he declares war against all that has been presented and the legacy of Christ, which Nietzsche sustains is no more that an invention of his disciples. – The word Christianity is already a misunderstanding – in reality there has been only one Christian, and he died on the Cross. The Evangel Died in the Cross. What was called Evangel from this moment onwards was already the opposite of what he had lived: bad tidings’, a dysangel†¦ The Christian, that which has been called Christian for two millennia is merely a psychological self-misunderstanding. (2003, p. 163) However, let’s have one thing crystal clear here. Nietzsche’s criticism against actual Christians is obviously unfair if one takes into consideration that the masses of followers of the Messiah honestly try to imitate him, but are indeed surrounded by a social and political scenario that is totally different to the one in which Christ emerged. Not putting resistance to the physical attacks perpetrated against him had a particular purpose, that is, his execution by his enemies. On the other hand, his followers do not pretend, nor are they mandated by the Christian teachings to seek an opportunity to give their lives. In other words, the word, misunderstanding, which Nietzsche insistently uses, could be applied to Nietzsche himself. He is the one who is misunderstanding what Christ was and what Christianity is supposed to be. In his virtually fanatic criticism against Christianity Nietzsche launches a quasi-violent attack against priests. Nietzsche does not seem to recognize that priests have made any positive contribution to humanity. He adopts here a radical perspective and, according to his statements, priests are one virtually the worst type of ruling class that has ever existed. Nietzsche accuses priests of conspiring against what he calls the natural human spirit. In addition, Nietzsche accuses priests of denying men from exercising their free will when it comes to eating from ‘the Tree of Knowledge’. The beginning of the Bible contains the entire psychology of the priest. – The priest knows only one great danger: that is science – the sound conception of cause and effect. But science flourishes in general only under happy circumstances – one must have a superfluity of time and intellect in order to ‘know’†¦ Consequently man must be made unhappy – this has at all times been the logic of the priest. (2003, p. 177) In general, Nietzsche uses a very insulting language when criticizing Christianity. Instead of providing well founded logical thoughts, he decides to adopt a theatrical rhetoric that proves nothing, except the fact that Nietzsche hated Christianity. But, again, let’s bear in mind that hate an insults are not good arguments. It will be enough to take a look into the following quote, in order to verify up to what point is Nietzsche mad against Christianity. Christianity also stands in opposition to all intellectual well-constitutedness – it can use only the morbid mind as the Christian mind, it takes the side of everything idiotic, it proclaims a curse against the ‘spirit’, against the superbia of the healthy spirit. Because sickness belongs to the essence of Christianity, the typical Christian condition, ‘faith’, has to be a form of sickness. (2003, p.181) This insulting rhetoric, the use of words such as morbid, idiotic, sickness, etc., reveals nothing about Christianity, but does reveal a lot about their author. What do they reveal? It is quite evident: that the mind that produced such insults is precisely a morbid, idiotic, and sick mind. Works Cited Nietzsche, Friedrich, On the Genealogy of Morals, New York, Barnes & Noble, 2006 —. Thus Spoke Zarathustra, New York, Barnes & Noble Classics, 20005 —. Twilight of the Idols and The Anti-Christ, London, Penguin books, 2003                                    

Monday, January 6, 2020

The Management Programs Of A Computer - 931 Words

Introduction Operating systems, (â€Å"OS†) are the management programs of a computer. First it is booted into the computer by a boot program, and then it manages all other programs on the computer. These other programs are called applications, and they utilize an operating system by making requests for process service power through an API, or application program interface. Users then interact directly with an operating system through a graphical user interface or command language. History The earliest computers lacked any form of operating system because they were simple mainframes. The machines were primitive and programs were often entered into the system one bit at a time, through many mechanical switches and plug boards. There were no operating systems during the first phase of computer history--from 1940-1955. By the 1950s, punch cards were introduced and made it so switches were not as necessary any more. The IBM 701, from General Motors Research Laboratories, was the first system that implemented an operating system. The systems generally ran one job at a time, which was indicated by whatever was on the punch card. This is called single-stream batch processing. Computers were just exotic experimental equipment, and mainly tested theory. The use plugboards would direct the computer. Without operating systems, there is no overlap between computation, I/O, think time, and response time. The specific goal was to handle tables of numbers. Librarie sShow MoreRelatedWhat s An Operating System? Essay1552 Words   |  7 Pagesoperating system (OS) is a software program that enables the computer hardware to communicate and operate with the computer software. OS is the software that supports a computer s basic functions, such as scheduling tasks, executing applications, and controlling peripherals. 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